By Lorenzo Magnani
This quantity explores abductive cognition, a big yet, at the very least till the 3rd sector of the final century, missed subject in cognition. The e-book goals at expanding wisdom approximately inventive and specialist inferences. The learn of those high-levelmethods of abductive reasoning is located on the crossroads of philosophy, good judgment, epistemology, synthetic intelligence, neuroscience, cognitive psychology, animal cognition and evolutionary theories; that's, on the center of cognitive technological know-how. Philosophers of technology within the 20th century have commonly wonderful among the inferential techniques energetic within the common sense of discovery and those energetic within the good judgment of justification. such a lot have concluded that no good judgment of artistic methods exists and, furthermore, rational version of discovery is most unlikely. in brief, clinical inventive inferences are irrational and there's no “reasoning” to hypotheses. nevertheless, a little research within the quarter of synthetic intelligence has proven that equipment for discovery will be chanced on which are computationally enough for rediscovering – or getting to know for the 1st time – empirical or theoretical legislation and theorems.
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Extra resources for Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning
This types of deductive model go beyond the mere treatment of selective abduction in terms of preferred explanations and include the role of those components whose abnormality makes the observation (no longer anomalous) consistent with the description of the system [Boutilier and Becher, 1995; Magnani, 2001a]. Without doubt the solution given by Boutilier and Becher furnishes a more satisfying qualitative account of the choice among competing explanations than G¨ardenfors’ in terms of “epistemic entrenchment”37 which tries to capture the idea of an ordering of beliefs according to our willingness to withdraw them when 36 37 Please distinguish here the technical use of the attribute model-based from the epistemologicalcognitive one I am introducing in this chapter.
776]. Thagard ascribes to the editors of Peirce’s work the responsibility for having clouded this change in his thinking by including discussions of hypothesis under the heading of “Abduction”, “[. . ] obscuring his shift from the belief that inference to an explanatory hypothesis can be a kind of justification to the weaker view that it is only a form of discovery”. The need for a methodological criterion of justification is caused by the fact that – at least in the Peircean framework – an abduced hypothesis that explains a certain puzzling fact should not be accepted 30 A more detailed description of abductive reasoning in diagnosis (and in “medical” diagnosis) is provided in my book [Magnani, 2001b, chapter four] and in [Gabbay and Woods, 2005, chapter six].
Hence, in reasoning to the best explanation, motivational, ethical or pragmatic criteria cannot be neglected. 3 What Is Abduction? 21 to the best explanation. Some epistemologists, like [Kuhn, 1962] and [Feyerabend, 1975], argued that in science these extra-rational motivation are unavoidable. For example, the so-called theory of explanatory coherence [Thagard, 1989; Thagard, 1992] introduces seven ideal principles of plausibility that occurs in the acceptation of new hypotheses and theories in science;31 the theory is susceptible to be treated at the computational level using a local connectionist network.
Abductive Cognition: The Epistemological and Eco-Cognitive Dimensions of Hypothetical Reasoning by Lorenzo Magnani