By Kai Schmitz
Several of the very foundations of the cosmological common version — the baryon asymmetry of the universe, darkish subject, and the foundation of the new vast bang itself — nonetheless demand a proof from the viewpoint of primary physics. This paintings advocates one fascinating probability for a constant cosmology that fills within the theoretical gaps whereas being totally according to the observational info. At very excessive energies, the universe could have been in a fake vacuum nation that preserved B-L, the variation among the baryon quantity B and the lepton quantity L as a neighborhood symmetry. during this nation, the universe skilled a level of hybrid inflation that merely ended whilst the fake vacuum grew to become volatile and decayed, during a waterfall transition, right into a section with spontaneously damaged B-L symmetry. This B-L section Transition was once observed through tachyonic preheating that transferred nearly the whole strength of the fake vacuum right into a fuel of B-L Higgs bosons, which in flip decayed into heavy Majorana neutrinos. finally, those neutrinos decayed into massless radiation, thereby generating the entropy of the new large bang, producing the baryon asymmetry of the universe through the leptogenesis mechanism and environment the degree for the creation of darkish topic. subsequent to various conceptual novelties and phenomenological predictions, the most fulfillment of the thesis is accordingly the attention-grabbing inspiration that the major function within the first act of our universe may have truly been performed via neutrinos.
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Additional resources for The B−L Phase Transition: Implications for Cosmology and Neutrinos
22 The exact nature of all nonequilibrium processes occurring prior to BBN, such as the generation of the BAU or the primordial metric perturbations, are currently still subject to speculations. On the other hand, the standard model of particle physics describes the interactions of elementary particles with great precision all the way up to the TeV scale. Based on standard model physics one is thus able to make an educated guess about the history of the universe up to T ∼ 1 TeV or equivalently t ∼ 10−13 s.
The hadrons emitted in the decays of the long-lived particle induce, for instance, extraordinary interconversion processes between the background nucleons. This leads to an enhancement of the neutron-toproton ratio after neutron decoupling and thus to a larger abundance of helium-4. At the same time, the energetic hadrons are also able to dissociate background helium-4 nuclei and to produce the other light elements nonthermally. If the decaying particle is electrically charged, it can form bound states with background nuclei, which again changes the nuclear reaction rates.
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The B−L Phase Transition: Implications for Cosmology and Neutrinos by Kai Schmitz